Areas of body affected. The lungs are most often the body parts affected by tuberculosis, but the bacteria can break out of the lungs to infect other organs. About 15 to 20 percent of tuberculosis patients have the disease spread to other areas besides the lungs. These patients are usually very young children or have compromised immune systems. The tuberculosis bacteria can strike the central nervous system and lead to meningitis. It infects the bones and lymph nodes. Tuberculosis can also invade the peritoneum, a membrane that covers organs in the abdomen.