Causes of High Blood Pressure. While it can’t be cured, high blood pressure can often be controlled. Knowing the causes helps. High blood pressure is known as hypertension. Some people have essential hypertension. The cause of essential hypertension isn’t known. The goal is to keep a healthy blood pressure at a safe level determined by a doctor. Healthy blood pressures can be very different for different people. It can vary by sex, race and how old a person is. Lifestyle changes and drugs can reduce blood pressure. Dietary alterations are the most common, but exercise is important to maintain healthy blood pressure levels.